A short history of amphetamine
A synthetic substance. Normally seen as a white powder, it acts as a stimulant of the central nervous system CNS. It is believed that amphetamine was first manufactured in the s by the German chemist Leuckart, Free local flirt evidence for this is lacking.
It appears that, as in the case of methamphetamine, systematic studies of its chemistry did not come about until the early twentieth century. Amphetamine has some limited therapeutic use, but most is manufactured in clandestine laboratories in Europe. It is under international control and closely related Free sex personals for Nantwich methamphetamine.
Amphetamine CAS is a member of the phenethylamine family, which includes a range of substances that may be stimulantsentactogens or hallucinogens. Amphetamine base is a colourless volatile oil insoluble in water. The most common salt is the sulfate CAS : a white or off-white powder soluble in water.
Illicit products mostly consist of powders. Tablets containing amphetamine may 35 year old woman sex logos similar to those seen on MDMA and other ecstasy tablets. Amphetamine is a CNS stimulant that causes hypertension and tachycardia with feelings of increased confidence, sociability and energy.
It suppresses appetite and fatigue and le to insomnia.
Following oral use, the effects usually start within 30 minutes and last for many hours. Later, users may feel irritable, restless, anxious, depressed and lethargic.
It increases the activity of the noradrenaline and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. Amphetamine is less potent than methamphetaminebut in uncontrolled situations the effects are almost indistinguishable. The S -isomer has greater activity than the R -isomer.
It is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. After a single oral dose Backpage of charleston sc 10 mg, maximum plasma levels are around 0. The plasma half-life varies from 4 to 12 hours and is dependent on the urinary pH: alkaline urine decreases the rate of elimination.
A major metabolite is 1-phenylpropanone, with smaller amounts of 4-hydroxyamphetamine. Analysis of amphetamine in urine is confounded because it is a metabolite of methamphetamine and certain medicinal products. Acute intoxication causes serious cardiovascular disturbances as well as behavioural problems that include agitation, confusion, paranoia, impulsivity and violence. Chronic use of amphetamine causes Pomeranian houston texas and neuroanatomical changes.
Dependence — as shown by increased tolerance — in deficits in memory and in decision-making and verbal reasoning. Some of the symptoms resemble those of paranoid schizophrenia. These effects may outlast drug use, although often they resolve eventually.
Injection of amphetamine carries the same viral infection hazards e. HIV and hepatitis as are found with other injectable drugs such as heroin.
Fatalities directly attributed to amphetamine are rare. The estimated minimum lethal dose in non-addicted adults is mg. The most common route of synthesis is by the Leuckart method. This uses P2PBMK, phenylacetone and reagents Pocono country place houses for sale as formic acid, ammonium formate or formamide to yield a racemic mixture of the R- and S -enantiomers.
Effects of amphetamines
A Horny girls near 76148 less common, but stereoselective, method is by reduction of the appropriate diastereoisomers of norephedrine or norpseudoephedrine. Amphetamine may be ingested, snorted and, less commonly, injected.
Unlike the hydrochloride salt of methamphetamine, amphetamine sulfate is insufficiently volatile to be smoked. When ingested, a dose may vary from several tens to several hundreds of milligrams depending on the purity.
Infographics and media
Other commonly used chemical names include 1-phenylaminopropane and phenyliospropylamine. Amphetamine is sometimes included with methamphetamine and other less common substances e. The Simon test produces a red coloration that will distinguish amphetamine a primary amine Plano massage therapist secondary amines such as methamphetamine blue coloration. Identification by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry can be improved by N -derivatisation, e. The R- and S -enantiomers levamfetamine and dexamfetamine respectively as well as the racemate a mixture of the R- and S -stereoisomers are listed in Schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
Amphetamine has occasional therapeutic use in the treatment of narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD. Prison and drugs in Europe June Wastewater analysis and drugs — a European study May An analysis of drugs in used syringes from sentinel European cities February Iversen, L.
King, L. Augusta Maine adult chat Analysis of Drugs and Poisons3rd edn, Vol. Moffat, A. Home Publications Drug profiles.
Amphetamine drug profile Pokemon sex site drug profile. Chemistry Amphetamine CAS is a member of the phenethylamine family, which includes a range of substances that may be stimulantsentactogens or hallucinogens.
This publication provides an overview of current knowledge and the Eindian girls com developments in the field of Havana prostitutes pictures use and prison in Europe.
The report explores in depth the epidemiology of drug use and drug-related problems among the prison population, the available social and health service responses to The project in question analysed wastewater in 82 European cities and towns to explore the drug-taking habits of those who live in them. The Since earlythe COVID pandemic has had a dramatic impact on the way we live, with European countries having to introduce unprecedented measures to protect public health. As with all areas of life, drug consumption, related harms and drug markets have been impacted, as have the services Syringes were collected in and from the bins of street automatic This report provides a comprehensive analysis of patterns emerging across Europe in the areas of drug supply, illicit drug use and associated public health problems.
National data sets are also provided across these themes and on key harm-reduction interventions. The report is available in English The issues selected here have been chosen for their policy relevance and general interest. Since the start ofEuropean countries have been experiencing an unprecedented public health threat with the emergence of the coronavirus disease COVID In order to investigate the effects and implications of this pandemic for people who use drugs in Europe, the EMCDDA instigated a mixed In order to investigate the effects and implications of this outbreak for drug services in Europe, the European Monitoring Centre for Drug seizures at a glance, Amphetamine users entering treatment in the EU updated June Lingam massage miami seizures in the EU updated June Amphetamine price and purity in the European How amphetamines are made updated June Video: European Drug Report — highlights.
At a glance — estimates of drug use in the European Union updated June Infographic: Changes in the mean weekly amounts of amphetamine residues from wastewater analyses in selected European cities between and Infographic: Changes in amphetamine residues from wastewater analyses in 29 European cities during the first lockdown period compared with before the pandemic left and after the first Need to blow a Poland dick period right.